READ MORENancy Pelosi and Chuck Schumer stuck by their refusal to fund his US-Mexico border wall, prompting Mr Trump to call the meeting "a total waste of time".
Democrats again accused the president of throwing a "temper tantrum".
The first payday since the shutdown began is due on Friday for 800,000 federal workers, who will go unpaid.
Mr Trump has demanded $5.7bn (£4.5bn) to build a steel barrier, which would deliver on a key campaign pledge. But Democrats - who control the House of Representatives - have refused to back the funding.
It was certainly brief, at only 14 minutes.
The president hosted the Democratic Party leaders in the Situation Room, the conference centre in the West Wing basement.
Mr Trump posed a direct question to House Speaker Nancy Pelosi about whether she would fund the wall. His tweet following the meeting reflected the outcome of that - he said "bye-bye" and left. ■