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Surprising number of exoplanets could host life

Christian Fernsby ▼ | August 3, 2020
A new study shows other stars could have as many as seven Earth-like planets in the absence of a gas giant like Jupiter.
Exoplanets
Surprising   Exoplanets
This is the conclusion of a study led by UC Riverside astrobiologist Stephen Kane published this week in the Astronomical Journal.

The search for life in outer space is typically focused on what scientists call the "habitable zone," which is the area around a star in which an orbiting planet could have liquid water oceans a condition for life as we know it.

Kane had been studying a nearby solar system called Trappist-1, which has three Earth like planets in its habitable zone.

His team created a model system in which they simulated planets of various sizes orbiting their stars. An algorithm accounted for gravitational forces and helped test how the planets interacted with each other over millions of years.

They found it is possible for some stars to support as many as seven, and that a star like our sun could potentially support six planets with liquid water.

"More than seven, and the planets become too close to each other and destabilize each other's orbits," Kane said.

Kane also suspects Jupiter, which has a mass two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the solar system combined, limited our system's habitability.

"It has a big effect on the habitability of our solar system because it's massive and disturbs other orbits," Kane said.

Only a handful of stars are known to have multiple planets in their habitable zones. Moving forward, Kane plans to search for additional stars surrounded entirely by smaller planets. These stars will be prime targets for direct imaging with NASA telescopes like the one at Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Habitable Exoplanet Observatory.

Kane's study identified one such star, Beta CVn, which is relatively close by at 27 light years away. Because it doesn't have a Jupiter like planet, it will be included as one of the stars checked for multiple habitable zone planets.


 

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