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Darwin's dilemma is no more

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Staff writer | Friday January 9, 2009 6:16PM ET
Charles DarwinA solution to the puzzle which has come to be known as Darwin's Dilemma has been uncovered by scientists at the University of Oxford.


"To the question of why we do not find rich fossiliferous deposits belonging to these…periods prior to the Cambrian system, I can give no satisfactory answer".

Darwin could find no evidence for fossils prior to the Cambrian, and the mystery has continued to perplex palaeontologists. The study, carried out by Richard H. T. Ballow and Martin D. Brasier at the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Oxford, focused on a rock formation from Shropshire, England, known as the Longmyndian Supergroup.

These rocks had been examined in Darwin’s time by the geologist J. W. Salter, who suspected them of containing records of Precambrian life, but he was unable to identify anything beyond ‘trace fossils’: unusual markings which may have been left behind by organisms.

The study used Salter’s collection as well as fresh samples from the Longmyndian Supergroup, and identified microscopic fossils of exceptional preservation. The fossils represent a wide array of microbial life from the Ediacaran period, the period immediately preceding the Cambrian (630 – 542 Mya). They were preserved in a number of ways. Some had been compressed under layers of sediment until they formed a thin film of carbon residue on the surface of the rock.

Others were preserved in three dimensions and are thought to have undergone permineralisation, a process where water containing minerals seeps into the spaces within an organism and evaporates, leaving behind mineral deposits which build up into a hard fossil. Some had also been preserved as impressions and moulds within layers of sediment, appearing as sharp ridges on bedding planes, or as their equivalent negative impressions.

It is not clear how the microbes kept themselves alive. As they lived in shallow marine environments, they may have survived either by converting light into energy in a similar way to plants, or by converting organic substances into energy as animals and humans do. Suggestions as to what organisms they might be related to include algae, fungi or a wide variety of other filamentous bacteria.

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