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Kidney stones, part one

Bernice Clark ▼ | January 23, 2008
Kidney stones are one of the most painful urinary disorders. Most of kidney stones go out without doctor's intervention, but in a smaller number of cases the surgery is needed.
kidney stone
kidney stoneKidney stones are one of the most painful urinary disorders. Most of kidney stones go out without doctor's intervention, but in a smaller number of cases the surgery is needed.

Two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra make the urinary system. A kidneys' mission is to remove excess of water and waste from the blood by transforming them in urine. They also keep the salt and other blood substances in balance. The kidneys generate hormones that help in building strong bones and making of red blood cells.

Normally, urine contains chemical substance that forbids or brakes crystals making. Most of these inhibitors don't work at all people, and in some persons the stones are made.

If crystals stay tiny enough they will travel through the urinary tract and went out of the body without person detecting it. The kidney stones can contain different combinations of chemical substance. The most frequent type of the kidney stones contains calcium in combination with phosphate or oxalate. That chemical substance are the part of normal human diet and they are they are part of bones and muscles.

Lots of factors are included in stones creation and their recognition is very important in treatment and prevention. The local factors are urine blocking, repeated infections, and anomaly of a ureter or urethra. Furthermore, general factors that are of metabolic nature also contribute to stone creation, as well as hormonal factors as hyperthyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis (vitamin D), or Paget's disease. Then, the way you eat, climate conditions, urine PH and urination of concentrated urine are contributing factors, too.

Signs and symptoms that may point to kidney stones are persistent urge to urinate, bloody, cloudy or foul-smelling urine, fever and chills if an infection is present. The most common symptom is an intense, colicky pain that may fluctuate in intensity over periods of 5 to 15 minutes. The pain usually starts in patient's back or side below the edge of its ribs. That happens because the stone moves down the urethra toward the bladder. The pain may spread to lower abdomen, groin and genitals on that side.

The kidney stones can cause agonising pain. But, it happens only when a kidney stone breaks loose and begins to work its way down from patient's kidneys, through the urethra, to the bladder. After first attack doctor must examine the patient, make laboratory tests, check the urine, abdominal RTG, kidney and ureter ultrasound and a tests that shows exactly the stones size, shape and its position.

After examination the doctor will prescribe the therapy. The kidney stones of a corn size can go out by naturally or be stimulated by intravenous injection. Hot bath, walking, shaking and drinking more liquid, 2 - 3 litres, will stimulate the kidney stones to go out. Cystic stones can be melted by alkali treatment. Two most important factors in creation of kidney stones are urinary stagnation and infection. Frequent urination delays may cause kidney damage.

Operation of kidney stones is necessary when stone can't go out because of its shape, size and position. The surgery is also necessary in a case when stone is bigger than 1 cm, has the shape of a hook, and when urinary delay and infection occurs. If the stone stops the flow of the urine that is also the reason for an urgent operation. If stones attack both kidneys the doctor will operate first the kidney that is more functional, then the weakest one.

Nutrition, drugs and lot of water are the combination for easier life with kidney stones. More on that in the next week's article.